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Beaubien, Madore B.


Madore Beaubien was the son of Jean Baptiste Beaubien who moved the Chicago area in 1816, after the Battle of Fort Dearborn. Jean Baptiste was a well-known fur trader, learning the business from Joseph Bailly. He married Mahnawbunokwe, the daughter of respected warrior and leader Shabbone, and had two children: Charles Henry and Madore. He then married Josette LaFromboise, daughter …

Bruno Family


Like many French-Canadian settlers with ties to the Potawatomi, the Brunos were once successful fur traders and trappers. Anthony Bruneau was the son of a French settler and an unknown Blackfoot woman from around Browning, Montana. Anthony was born in Canada, and family records indicate the Potawatomi may have adopted him. Anthony married a woman named Julia, and they had …

Burnett Family


The Burnett family has a long, rich history with the Potawatomi people. French fur trader William Burnett settled on the St. Joseph River near Niles, Michigan, after the Revolutionary War. He established two successful trading posts and eventually married Kaukima, daughter of revered Potawatomi leader Nanaquiba and sister to Topinabee. Kaukima and William had seven children: James, Abraham, John, Isaac, …

Darling Family


The Darling family’s Potawatomi ties began with the marriage of Elizabeth Ouilmette and Lucius (Louis) Ripley Darling. Darling was of Scottish and Irish descent and operated a ferry. He married Elizabeth on July 15, 1936. She was the daughter of Antoine, known as one of the first residents of Chicago, and Archange Chevalier Ouilmette. Archange’s mother, Chopa, was the daughter …

Indian Removal Act


In the years after the defeat of the British and their Indian allies in the War of 1812, the nature of the U.S. government’s Indian policy and the goal of treaty-making became increasingly hostile toward Native Americans, opening the door for the removals of the 1830s. The federal government was no longer interested in negotiating treaties that just arranged for …

Mshkeke mzen’egen [Medical Journal]


13in L x 8.5in W x 1.5in H The 234-page medical journal was researched and recorded by Joseph Napoleon Bourassa, who studied medicine at the Choctaw Academy and had close relationships with traditional medicine men before and after removal. Listed are health conditions and their medicinal therapies. Each treatment is recorded as a recipe, noting wild plants harvested and processed. …

Neswake [Fletcher of Arrows]


Neswake was a leader of much influence and distinguished orator among the Wabash Potawatomi. He served as principle speaker for the Indiana Potawatomi during land cession and removal negotiations. Neswake gave the keynote address at the 1837 Keewaunay emigration council, expressing grievances and deep concern regarding the survival of his people post-removal. Despite his mixed opposition to removal, his name …

Nibosh [Humble Death or Twisted Head]


A warrior of great distinction among the Wabash Potawatomi of Indiana, Nibosh was a veteran of the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) and the greater War of 1812. His name, translated as Humble Death or Twisted Head, indicated both his prowess in battle and physical appearance, due to the numerous injuries he sustained. After being captured and scalped during an inter-tribal …

Platte Purchase, Missouri


The Treaty of Chicago was signed on Sept. 26 and 27, 1833, and proved to be a watershed agreement in the dealings between the Potawatomi and the U.S. government. Prior to this treaty, land cessions were relatively small and included land set aside as private reserves for certain signatories. The Treaty of Chicago, however, ensured a substantial land cession of …

Trail of Death


In early September 1838, General John Tipton called for a council of Potawatomi leaders at Menominee’s village near Twin Lakes in Indiana to discuss the issue of removal. In reality, the General had no intention of talking about removal. He had been assigned the task of removing Indiana’s remaining Potawatomi population by Governor David Wallace who believed the Potawatomi couldn’t …