Indian Removal Act
In the years after the defeat of the British and their Indian allies in the War of 1812, the nature of the U.S. government’s Indian policy and the goal of treaty-making became increasingly hostile toward Native Americans, opening the door for the removals of the 1830s. This shift in policy was solidified when President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act on May 28, 1830. The act ultimately removed thousands of Native Americans from their homes on forced walks from the Great Lakes and east coast regions to the Indian Territory. From the 1830s to the 1860s there were hundreds of removals, each surrounded by circumstances unique to each tribe, village, or geographic area.
If you would like to learn more about Potawatomi removals, please see the Potawatomi Trail of Death.
Cooke, Sarah E. and Rachel B. Ramadhyani. 1993. Indians and a Changing Frontier: The Art of George Winter
Mosteller, Kelli. 2013. Place, Politics, and Property: Negotiating Allotment for the Citizen Potawatomi, 1861 – 1891
Murphy, Joseph F. 1988. Potawatomi of the West: Origins of the Citizen Band
Petit, Benjamin Marie. 1941. The Trail of Death; Letters of Benjamin Marie Petit
Polke, William. 1925. Journal Of An Emigrating Party Of Pottawattomie Indians
Smith, Dwight L. 1948. A Continuation of the Journal of an Emigrating Party of Potawatomi Indians, 1838, and Ten William Polke Manuscripts
Winter, George. 1948. The Journals and Indian Paintings of George Winter, 1837-1839