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Northwest Indian War Date: 1785-1795

Post revolution America was riddled with conflict as settlers began encroaching on Native lands, unlawfully ceded to the United States by Great Britain. Rejecting American control and settlement in the Northwest Territory, a confederation of Great Lakes tribes, including Detroit and St. Joseph Potawatomi, engaged in a campaign of violent raids that culminated into a series of battles, ultimately warranting U.S. military action. Led by the renowned Miami warrior and headman Mshikenikwe [Little Turtle], the tribesmen dealt the most significant defeats in American military history to date.


Clifton, James A. 1998. The Prairie People: Continuity and Change in Potawatomi Indian Culture, 1665-1965

Edmunds, R. David. 1978. The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire

Heath, William. 2015. William Wells and the Struggle for the Old Northwest

Hogeland, William. 2018. Autumn of the Black Snake: George Washington, Mad Anthony Wayne, and the Invasion That Opened the West

White, Richard. 2011. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815

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