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St. Clair’s Defeat

Humiliated by the defeat of Josiah Harmar, the U.S. commissioned another major expedition against the Northwest tribes under the command of General Arthur St. Clair. Near present Fort Recovery, Ohio, Mshikenikwe, Shawnee leader Weyapiersenwah and a force of over one thousand inflicted greater losses than the previous year. Due to the military disaster, the United States ordered the first internal investigation of its executive branch.


Clifton, James A. 1998. The Prairie People: Continuity and Change in Potawatomi Indian Culture, 1665-1965

Edmunds, R. David. 1978. The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire

White, Richard. 2011. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815

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