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Mamkeznéwen [Moccasin]

One of the most prominent and competitive games among Potawatomi men is mamkeznéwen [moccasin]. Forming two teams, each are comprised of a finder/hider, scorekeeper, drummers and singers. Using theatrics, each team is tasked with hiding a small token under one of four moccasins in an attempt to disguise its location and confuse opponents. With the token concealed, drummers and singers among the hiding team play specific songs to distract opponents and intensify gameplay. Points are earned based on the number and pattern of successful selections, each represented with distinct counting sticks. As the game progresses, teammates alternate roles to allow each member an opportunity to play and score points. The team that collects all counting sticks wins.


Cooke, Sarah E. and Rachel B. Ramadhyani. 1993. Indians and a Changing Frontier: The Art of George Winter

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